Antifreeze Proteins - Applied Research

Previous to 1995


Amir, G., Rubinsky, B., Horowitz, L., Miller, L., Leor, J., Kassif, Y., Mishaly, D., Smolinsky, A.K., and Lavee, J. (2004). Prolonged 24-hour subzero preservation of heterotopically transplanted rat hearts using antifreeze proteins derived from arctic fish. Ann. Thorac. Surg. 77 (5):1648-55.

Hall-Manning, T., Spurgeon, M., Wolfreys, A.M., and Baldrick, A.P. (2004) Safety evaluation of ice-structuring protein (ISP) type III HPLC 12 preparation. Lack of genotoxicity and subchronic toxicity. Food Chem. Toxicol. 42 (2): 321-33.

Tachibana, Y., Fletcher, G.L., Fujitani, N., Tsuda, S., Monde, K., and Nishimura, S. (2004) Antifreeze glycoproteins: elucidation of the structural motifs that are essential for antifreeze activity. Angew Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 43 (7):856-62.

Zhang, D.Q., Liu, B., Feng, D.R., He, Y.M., and Wang, J.F. (2004) Expression, purification, and antifreeze activity of carrot antifreeze protein and its mutants. Protein Expr. Purif.", 35 (2): 257-63.


Amir, G., Rubinsky, B., Kassif, Y., Horowitz, L., Smolinsky, A.K., and Lavee, J. (2003) Preservation of myocyte structure and mitochondrial integrity in subzero cryopreservation of mammalian hearts for transplantation using antifreeze proteins-an electron microscopy study. Eur. J. Cardiothoracic Surg. 24 (2): 292-6; discussion 296-7.

Baardsnes, J., Kuiper, M.J., and Davies, P.L. (2003) Antifreeze protein dimer: when two ice-binding faces are better than one. J. Biol. Chem. 278 (40):38942-7. E-pub 2003 Jul 17.

Tomczak, M.M., Hincha, D.K., Crowe, J.H., Harding, M.M., and Haymet, A.D. (2003) The effect of hydrophobic analogues of the type I winter flounder antifreeze protein on lipid bilayers. FEBS Lett. 551 (1-3): 13-9.

Bindslev-Jensen, C., Sten, E., Earl, L.K., Crevel, R.W., Bindslev-Jensen, U., Hansen, T.K., Stahl Skov, P., and Poulsen, L.K. (2003) Assessment of the potential allergenicity of ice structuring protein type III HPLC 12 using the FAO/WHO 2001 decision tree for novel foods. Food Chem. Toxicol. 41 (1): 81-7.

Kuiper, M.J., Lankin, C., Gauthier, S.Y., Walker, V.K., and Davies, P.L. (2003) Purification of antifreeze proteins by adsorption to ice. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 300 (3): 645-8.

Pudney, P.D., Buckley, S.L., Sidebottom, C.M., Twigg, S.N., Sevilla, M.P., Holt, C.B., Roper, D., Telford, J.H., McArthur, A.J., and Lillford, P.J. (2003) The physico-chemical characterization of a boiling stable antifreeze protein from a perennial grass (Lolium perenne). Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 410 (2): 238-45.


Crevel, R.W., Fedyk, J.K., and Spurgeon, M.J. (2002) Antifreeze proteins: characteristics, occurrence and human exposure. Food Chem.Toxicol. 40 (7): 899-903.

Huang, T., Nicodemus, J., Zarka, D.G., Thomashow, M.F., Wisniewski, M., and Duman, J.G. (2002) Expression of an insect (Dendroides canadensis) antifreeze protein in Arabidopsis thaliana results in a decrease in plant freezing temperature. Plant Mol. Biol. 50 (3): 333-44.

Karanova, M.V., Pronina, N.D., and Tsvetkova, L.I. (2002) The effect of antifreeze glycoproteins on survival and quality of fish spermatozoa under the conditions of long-term storage at +4 degree C [Article in Russian]. Izv Akad Nauk Ser Biol. Jan-Feb; (1): 88-92.

Koshimoto, C., and Mazur, P. (2002) Effects of warming rate, temperature, and antifreeze proteins on the survival of mouse spermatozoa frozen at an optimal rate. Cryobiology. 45 (1): 49-59.

Wang, L.H., Wusteman, M.C., Smallwood, M., and Pegg, D.E. (2002) The stability during low-temperature storage of an antifreeze protein isolated from the roots of cold-acclimated carrots. Cryobiology. 44 (3): 307-10.


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Fletcher, G.L., Hew,C.L., and Davis, P.L. (2001). Antifreeze Proteins of Teleost Fishes. Annu Rev. Physiol,63: 359-90
"Article - Antifreeze Proteins of Teleost Fishes" (PDF)


Duncker, B.P., Davies, P.L., and Walker, V.K. (1999). Increased gene dosage augments antifreeze protein levels in transgenic Drosophila melanogaster. TRANSGENIC RESEARCH. 8: 45-50.

Fletcher, G.L., Goddard, S.V., and Wu, Y.L. (1999). Antifreeze proteins and their genes: From basic research to business opportunity. CHEMTECH. 29: 17-28
Article - Antifreeze proteins and their genes: From basic research to business opportunity

Kenward, K.D., Brandle, J., McPherson, J., and Davies, P.L. (1999) Type II fish antifreeze protein accumulation in transgenic tobacco does not confer frost resistance.TRANSGENIC RESEARCH. 8: 105-117.

Oliver, A.E., Tablin, F., Walker, N.J., and Crowe, J.H. (1999) The internal calcium concentration of human platelets increases during chilling. BIOCHIMICA ET BIOPHYSICA ACTA - BIOMEMBRANES. 1416: 349-360.

Pham, L., Dahiya, R., and Rubinsky, B. (1999). An in vivo study of antifreeze protein adjuvant cryosurgery. CRYOBIOLOGY. 38: 169-175


Feeney, R.F., and Y. Yeh. (1998). Antifreeze proteins: current status and possible food uses. Trends in Food Science and Technology. 9: 1-5.

Ishiguro, H., and Rubinsky, B. (1998). Influence of fish antifreeze proteins on the freezing of cell-suspensions with cryoprotectant penetrating cells. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER. 41: 1907-1915

Oliver, A.E., Tablin, F., Walker, N.J., Tsvetkova, N.M., and Crowe, J.H. (1998). The internal Calcium concentration of human platelets increases during chilling through the thermotropic phase-transition. MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF THE CELL. 9:1461-1461

O'Neil, L., S.J. Paynter, B.J. Fuller, R.W. Shaw, and A.L. DeVries. (1998). Vitrification of mature mouse oocytes in a 6 Me2SO solution supplemented with antifreeze glycoproteins: the effect of temperature. Cryobiol. 37: 59-66.

Younis, A.I., B. Rooks, S. Khan, and K.G. Gould. (1998). The effects of antifreeze peptide III (AFP) and insulin transferrin selenium (ITS) on cryopreservation of chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) spermatozoa. J. Androl. 19: 207-214.


Baguisi, A., A.Arav, T.F.Crosby, J.F.Roche, and M.P.Boland. (1997). Hypothermic storage of sheep embryos with antifreeze proteins - development in-vitro and in-vivo. Theriogenology. 48 (6): 1017-1024

DeOliveira, D.B., and R.A.Laursen. (1997). Control of calcite crystal morphology by a peptide designed to bind to a specific surface. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 119: 10627-10631.

Graham, L.A., Y.C.Liou, V.K.Walker, and P.L.Davies. (1997). Hyperactive antifreeze protein from beetles. Nature. 388 (6644): 727-728

Grandum, S., and K.Nakagomi. (1997). Characteristics of ice slurry containing antifreeze protein for ice storage applications. Journal of Thermophysics and Heat Transfer. 11 (3): 461-466

Hays, L.M., Feeney, R.E., Tablin, F., Oliver, A.E., Walker, N.J., Crowe, L.M., and Crowe, J.H. (1997). Fish antifreeze glycoproteins protect cellular membranes during lipid-phase transitions. NEWS IN PHYSIOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 12: 189-194

Karanova, M.V., L.I.Zsvetkova, and N.N.Petropavlov. (1997). Effect of antifreeze glycoproteins on quality of cryoconserved carp sperm (Russian). Biofizika. 42 (3): 725-728

Koushafar, H., and B. Rubinsky. (1997). Effect of antifreeze proteins on frozen primary prostatic adenocarcinoma cells. Urology. 49: 421-425.

Koushafar, H., L.Pham, C.Lee, and B.Rubinsky. (1997). Chemical adjuvant cryosurgery with antifreeze proteins. Journal of Surgical Oncology. 66 (2): 114-121

Loewen, M.C., X.Liu, P.L.Davies, and A.J.Daugulis. (1997). Biosynthetic production of Type-II fish antifreeze protein - fermentation by Pichia pastoris. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. 48 (4): 480-486.

Reeves, N.J. and J.S. Evans. (1997). Polypeptide interactions at ice and biomineral interfaces are defined by secondary structure-dependent chain orientations. Journal of Physical Chemistry. 101: 6665-6669.

Tablin, F., Walker, N.J., Oliver, A.E., Crowe, L.M., and Crowe, J.H. (1997). Anti-freeze glycoproteins (AFGPs) inhibit lateral phase-separation of platelet membrane-lipids during cold-storage of washed human platelets. BLOOD. 90 is.10 pt.1 supp.1: 1173-1173

Tyshenko, M.G., D.Doucet, P.L.Davies, and V.K.Walker. (1997). The antifreeze potential of the spruce budworm thermal hysteresis protein. Nature Biotechnology. 15 (9): 887-890

Wallis, J.G., H.Y.Wang, and D.J.Guerra. (1997). Expression of a synthetic antifreeze protein in potato reduces electrolyte release at freezing temperatures. Plant Molecular Biology. 35 (3): 323-330


Arav, A., Y. Zeron, S.B. Leslie, E. Behboodi, G.B. Anderson, and J.H. Crowe. (1996). Phase-transition temperature and chilling sensitivity of bovine oocytes. Cryobiology. 33: 589-599.

Chao, H.M., R.S.Hodges, C.M.Kay, S.Y.Gauthier, and P.L.Davies. (1996). A natural variant of Type I antifreeze protein with 4 ice-binding repeats is a particularly potent antifreeze. Protein Science. 5 (6): 1150-1156.

Chao, H.M., P.L. Davies, and J. F. Carpenter. (1996).Effects of antifreeze proteins on red blood cell survival during cryopreservation. J. Exp. Biol. 199: 2071-2076.

Hays, L.M., R.E.Feeney, L.M.Crowe, J.H.Crowe, & A.E.Oliver. (1996). Antifreeze glycoproteins inhibit leakage from liposomes during thermotropic phase-transitions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol.93, pp.6835-6840.

Palasz, A.T., and R.J. Mapletoft. (1996). Cryopreservation of mammalian embryos and oocytes - recent advances. Biotechnology Advances: 96, 127-149.

Tablin, F., A.E. Oliver, N.J.Walker, L.M.Crowe, & J.H.Crowe. (1996). Membrane phase transition of intact human platelets - correlation with cold-induced activation. Journal of Cellular Physiology, vol 168, pp. 305-313.

Tatsutani, K., B. Rubinsky, G. Onik, and R. Dahiya. (1996). Effect of thermal variables on frozen human primary prostatic adenocarcinoma cells. Urology. 48: 441-447.

Tilser, I., E. Breierov , M. Tich , H. Skalsk , and E. Ettlerov . (1996). Effect of supplementation of University of Wisconsin Solution with glycoproteins from psychrophilic strains of yeast on hypothermic liver storage of rats. Cryobiol. 33: 347-353.

Upreti, G.C., S.R.Payne, D.M.Duganzich, J.E.Oliver & J.F.Smith. (1996). Enzyme leakage during cryopreservation of ram sperm. Animal Reproduction Science, vol. 41, pp. 27-36.

Younis, A.I and K.G. Gould. (1996). Influence of antifreeze glycoprotein (AFGP) on preservation of motility characteristics of frozen-thawed chimpanzee sperm. Biology of Reproduction, 54: supplement 1, p186, abstract # 517. (N.B. Dr. Younis confirmed on Oct 31, 1996, that these experiments were actually done with AFP Type III, and this will be reflected in the manuscript which is in prep at this time).


Griffith, M., and K.V. Ewart. (1995). Antifreeze proteins and their potential uses in frozen foods. Biotechnology Advances. 13: 375-402.

Karanova, M.V., L.M.Mezhevikina, & N.N.Petropavlov. (1995). Investigation of the cryoprotective properties of antifreeze glycoproteins of the White Sea cod Gadus morhua on low temperature freezing of mouse embryos. Biofizika, vol.40, pp.1341-1347.

Mezhevikina, L.M., M.V.Karanova. (1995). The use of antifreeze glycoproteins in the freezing of early mouse embryos in liquid nitrogen. Izvestiya Akademii Nauk Seriya Biologicheskaya, is.2, pp.172-177.

Mugnano, J.A., T.Wang, J.R.Layne, A.L.DeVries, & R.E.Lee. (1995). Antifreeze glycoproteins promote intracellular freezing of rat cardiomyocytes at high subzero temperatures. American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative, and Comparative Physiology, vol. 38, pp. R 474-R 479.

Payne, S.R. and O.A. Young. (1995). Effects of pre-slaughter administration of antifreeze proteins on frozen meat quality. Meat Sci. 41: 147-155.

Shaw, J.M., C. Ward, and A.O. Trounson. (1995). Survival of mouse blastocysts slow cooled in propanediol or ethylene glycol is influenced by the thawing procedure, sucrose and antifreeze proteins. Theriogenology. 43, 1289-1300.

Shaw, J.M., C. Ward, and A.O. Trounson. (1995). Evaluation of propanediol, ethylene glycoll, sucrose and antifreeze proteins on the survival of slow-cooled mouse pronuclear and 4-cell embryos. Human Reproduction. 10, 396-402.

Wang, R.X., P.J.Zhang, Z.Gong, and C.L.Hew. (1995). The expression of antifreeze protein gene in transgenic goldfish (Carasius auratus) and its implication in cold adaptation. Mol. Marine Biol. Biotech. 4: 20-26.

Previous to 1995


Arav, A., B. Rubinsky, E. Seren, J.F. Roche, and M.P. Boland. (1994). The role of thermal hysteresis proteins during cryopreservation of oocytes and embryos. Theriogenology. 41: 107-112.

Karanova, M.V. and L.I. Tsvetkova. (1994). Cryoprotective properties of antifreeze glycoproteins upon freezing of fish sperm. Izvestiya Akademii Nauk Seriya Biologicheskaya. is.5: 818-827.

Lillford, P.J. and C.B. Holt. (1994). Antifreeze Proteins. Journal of Food Engineering. 22, 475-482.

Payne, S.R., J.E. Oliver, and G.C. Upreti. (1994). Effect of antifreeze proteins on the motility of ram spermatozoa. Cryobiol. 31: 180-184.

Payne, S.R., D. Sandford, A. Harris, and O.A. Young. (1994). The effects of antifreeze proteins on chilled and frozen meats. Meat Sci. 37: 429-438.

Payne, S.R. and P.W.Wilson. (1994). Comparison of the freeze-thaw characteristics of Antarctic Cod (Dissostichus mawsoni) and Black Cod (Paranotothenia augustata) - possible effects of antifreeze glycoproteins. J. Musc. Foods. 5: 233-244.

Rubinsky, B, A. Arav, J.S. Hong, and C.Y. Lee. (1994). Freezing of mammalian livers with glycerol and antifreeze proteins. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 200: 732-741.

Wang, T.C., Q.Y. Zhu, X.P.Yang, J.R. Layne, and A.L. DeVries. (1994). Antifreeze glycoproteins from Antarctic notothenioid fishes fail to protect the rat cardiac explant during hypothermic and freezing preservation. Cryobiology: 31, 185-192.

Yeh,Y., R.E. Feeny, R.L. McKown, and G.J. Warren. (1994). Measurement of grain growth in the recrystallization of rapidly frozen solutions of antifreeze glycoproteins. Biopolymers. 84: 1495-1504.


Arav, A., B. Rubinsky, G. Fletcher, and E. Seren. (1993). Cryogenic protection of oocytes with antifreeze proteins. Mol. Rep and Dev. 36: 488-493.

Itskovitz-Eldor, J., J. Levron, A. Arav, S. Bar-Ami, D.W. Stein, G.L. Fletcher, and B. Rubinsky. (1993). Hypothermic preservation of human oocytes with antifreeze proteins from sub-polar fish. Cryo-Letters. 14: 235-242.

Sutton, R.L. and D.E. Pegg. (1993). Devitrification in butane-2,3-diol solutions containing anti-freeze peptide. Cryo-Letters. 14: 13-20.

Warren, G.J., C.M. Hague, L.V. Corotto, and G.M. Mueller. (1993). Properties of engineered antifreeze peptides. FEBS Letters: 321, 116-120.


Carpenter, J.F. and T.N. Hansen. (1992). Antifreeze protein modulates cell survival during cryopreservation: Mediation through influence on ice crystal growth. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 89: 8953-8957.

Hansen, T.N., J.E. Villafranca, and J.F. Carpenter. (1992). Enhanced cryopreservation of human red blood cells with recombinant antifreeze peptide. FASEB J. 6: A172-A172.

Lee, C.Y., B. Rubinsky, and G.L. Fletcher. (1992). Hypothermic preservation of whole mammalian organs with antifreeze proteins. Cryo-Letters. 13: 59-66.

Negulescu, P. A., B. Rubinsky, G.L. Fletcher, & T.E. Machen. (1992). Fish antifreeze proteins block Ca++ entry into rabbit parietal cells. American Journal of Physiology. 263, C1310-C1313.

Rubinsky, B., A. Arav, and A.L. DeVries. (1992). The cryoprotective effect ofantifreeze glycopeptides from Antarctic fishes. Cryobiol. 29: 69-79.

Rubinsky, B., M. Mattioli, A. Arav, B. Barboni, and G.L. Fletcher. (1992). Inhibition of Ca++ and K+ currents by "antifreeze" proteins. Am. J. Physiol. 262: R542-R545.

Zhang, M.I.N., and J.H.M.Willison. (1992). Electrical impedance analysis in plant tissues: in vivo detection of freezing injury. Can. J. Bot. 70: 2254-2258.


McKown, R.L., and G.J.Warren. (1991). Enhanced survival of yeast expressing an antifreeze gene analogue after freezing. Cryobiology. 28: 474-482.

Rubinsky, B., A. Arav, and G.L. Fletcher. (1991). Hypothermic protection - a fundamental property of "antifreeze" proteins. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 180: 566-571.


Rubinsky, B., A. Arav, M. Mattioli, and A.L. DeVries. (1990). The effect of antifreeze glycopeptides on membrane potential changes at hypothermic temperatures. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 173: 1369-1374.


Antifreeze Proteins - Pure Research

Previous to 1995


Evans, R.P., and Fletcher, G.L. (2004). Isolation and purification of antifreeze proteins from skin tissues of snailfish, cunner and sea raven. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1700(2): 209-17.

Gilbert, J.A., Hill, P.J., Dodd, C.E., and Laybourn-Parry, J. (2004) Demonstration of antifreeze protein activity in Antarctic lake bacteria. Microbiology. 150 (Pt 1):171-80.

Lewis, J.M., Ewart, K.V., and Driedzic, W.R. (2004). Freeze Resistance in Rainbow Smelt (Osmerus mordax): Seasonal Pattern of Glycerol and Antifreeze Protein Levels and Liver Enzyme Activity Associated with Glycerol Production. Physiol Biochem Zool. 77(3): 415-22.

Marshall, C.B., Fletcher, G.L., and Davies, P.L. (2004). Hyperactive antifreeze protein in a fish. Nature. 429 (6988):153.

Marshall, C.B., Tomczak, M.M., Gauthier, S.Y., Kuiper, M.J., Lankin, C., Walker, V.K., and Davies, P.L. (2004). Partitioning of fish and insect antifreeze proteins into ice suggests they bind with comparable affinity. Biochemistry 43 (1):148-54.


Cheng, C.H., Chen, L., Near, T.J., and Jin, Y. (2003) Functional antifreeze glycoprotein genes in temperate-water New Zealand nototheniid fish infer an Antarctic evolutionary origin. Mol. Biol. Evol. 20 (11):1897-908. E-pub 2003 Jul 28.

Graether, S.P., Gagne, S.M., Spyracopoulos, L., Jia, Z., Davies, P.L., and Sykes, B.D. (2003) Spruce budworm antifreeze protein: changes in structure and dynamics at low temperature. J Mol. Biol. 327 (5): 1155-68.

Low, W.K., Lin, Q., and Hew, C.L. (2003) The role of N and C termini in the antifreeze activity of winter flounder (Pleuronectes americanus) antifreeze proteins. J. Biol. Chem. 278 (12): 10334-43. E-pub 2003 Jan. 13.

Murray, H.M., Hew, C.L., and Fletcher, G.L. (2003) Spatial expression patterns of skin-type antifreeze protein in winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) epidermis following metamorphosis. J. Morphol. 257 (1): 78-86.

Raymond, J.A., and Knight, C.A. (2003) Ice binding, recrystallization inhibition, and cryoprotective properties of ice-active substances associated with Antarctic sea ice diatoms. Cryobiology. 46 (2): 174-81.

Tomczak, M.M., Marshall, C.B., Gilbert, J.A., and Davies, P.L. (2003) A facile method for determining ice recrystallization inhibition by antifreeze proteins. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 311 (4): 1041-6.


Baardsnes, J., and Davies, P.L. (2002) Contribution of hydrophobic residues to ice binding by fish type III antifreeze protein. Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1601 (1): 49-54.

Doucet, D., Tyshenko, M.G., Davies, P.L., and Walker, V.K. (2002) A family of expressed antifreeze protein genes from the moth, Choristoneura fumiferana. Eur. J. Biochem. 269 (1): 38-46.

Marshall, C.B., Daley, M.E., Graham, L.A., Sykes, B.D., and Davies, P.L. (2002) Identification of the ice_binding face of antifreeze protein from Tenebrio molitor. FEBS Lett. 529 (2-3): 261-7.

Yamashita, Y., Nakamura, N., Omiya, K., Nishikawa, J., Kawahara, H., and Obata, H. (2002) Identification of an antifreeze lipoprotein from Moraxella sp. of Antarctic origin. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 66 (2): 239-47.


Evans, R.P., and Fletcher, G.L. (2001) Isolation and characterization of type I antifreeze proteins from Atlantic snailfish (Liparis atlanticus) and dusky snailfish (Liparis gibbus). Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1547 (2): 235-44.

Low, W.K., Lin, Q., Stathakis, C., Miao, M., Fletcher, G.L., and Hew, C.L. (2001) Isolation and characterization of skin-type, type I antifreeze polypeptides from the longhorn sculpin, Myoxocephalus octodecemspinosus. J. Biol. Chem. 276 (15): 11582-9. E-pub 2001 Jan 02.


Baardsnes, J., Kondejewski, L.H., Hodges, R.S., Chao, H., Kay, C., and Davies, P.L. (1999). New ice-binding face for type I antifreeze protein. FEBS LETTERS. 463: 87-91

Chen, G.J., and Jia, Z.C. (1999) Ice-binding surface of fish type III antifreeze. BIOPHYSICAL JOURNAL. 77: 1602-1608

Cheng, C.H.C., and Chen, L.B. (1999) Evolution of an antifreeze glycoprotein NATURE. 401: 443-444

Davies, P.L., G.L. Fletcher, and C.L. Hew. (1999). Freeze resistance strategies based on antifreeze proteins. In Environmental Stress and Gene Regulation. Edited by K.B.Storey. BIOS. Scientific Publishers, Oxford, UK: 61-80.

Ewart, K.V., Lin, Q., and Hew, C.L. (1999) Structure, function and evolution of antifreeze proteins. CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR LIFE SCIENCES. 55: 271-283

Goddard, S.V., Kao, M.H., Fletcher, G.L. (1999) Population differences in antifreeze production cycles of juvenile Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) reflect adaptations to overwintering environment. CANADIAN JOURNAL OF FISHERIES AND AQUATIC SCIENCES. 56 (is.11): 1991-1999

Graether, S.P., DeLuca, C.I., Baardsnes, J., Hill, G.A., Davies, P.L., and Jia, Z.C. (1999). Quantitative and qualitative analysis of type II antifreeze protein structure and function. JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY. 274: 11842-11847

Graether, S.P., Ye, Q.L., Davies, P.L., and Jia, Z.C. (1999). Crystallization and preliminary x-ray crystallographic analysis of spruce budworm antifreeze protein. JOURNAL OF STRUCTURAL BIOLOGY. 126: 72-75.

Harding, M.M., Ward, L.G., and Haymet, A.D.J. (1999) Type I 'antifreeze' proteins - structure-activity studies and mechanisms of ice growth inhibition. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF BIOCHEMISTRY. 264: 653-665.

Haymet, A.D.J., Ward, L.G., and Harding, M.M. (1999). Winter flounder "antifreeze" proteins: Synthesis and ice growth inhibition of analogues that probe the relative importance of hydrophobic and hydrogen-bonding interactions. JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY. 121: 941-948

Lin, Q.S., Ewart, K.V., Yan, Q., Wong, W.K.R., Yang, D.S.C., and Hew, C.L. (1999). Secretory expression and site-directed mutagenesis studies of the winter flounder skin-type antifreeze polypeptides. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF BIOCHEMISTRY. 264: 49-54

Lin, G.S., Ewart, K.V., Yang, D.S.C., and Hew, C.L. (1999). Studies of a putative ice-binding motif in winter flounder skin-type antifreeze polypeptide. FEBS LETTERS. 453: 331-334.

Liou, Y.C., Thibault, P., Walker, V.K., Davies, P.L., and Graham, L.A. (1999) A complex family of highly heterogeneous and internally repetitive hyperactive antifreeze proteins from the beetle Tenebrio molitor. BIOCHEMISTRY. 38: 11415-11424.

Loewen, M.C., Chao, H.M., Houston, M.E., Baardsnes, J., Hodges, R.S., Kay, C.M., Sykes, B.D., Sonnichsen, F.D., and Davies, P.L. (1999). Alternative roles for putative ice-binding residues in type I antifreeze protein. BIOCHEMISTRY. 38: 4743-4749.

Smallwood, M., Worrall, D., Byass, L., Elias, L., Ashford, D., Doucet, C.J., Holt, C., Telford, J., Lillford, P., and Bowles, D.J. (1999) Isolation and characterization of a novel antifreeze protein from carrot (Daucus carota) BIOCHEMICAL JOURNAL. 340: 385-391

Spilliaert, R., and Gudmundsdottir, A. (1999) Atlantic cod trypsin Y - Member of a novel trypsin group. MARINE BIOTECHNOLOGY. 1: 598-607.


Cheng, C.H.C. (1998) Evolution of the diverse antifreeze proteins. CURRENT OPINION IN GENETICS & DEVELOPMENT. 8: 715-720

DeLuca, C.I., Comley, R. , and Davies, P.L. (1998) Antifreeze proteins bind independently to ice. BIOPHYSICAL JOURNAL. 74: 1502-1508

Deng, G.J. Isolation and characterization of an antifreeze protein from the longhorn sculpin, Myoxocephalus-octodecimspinosis. (1998) Biochimica et Biophysica Acta-Protein Structure and Molecular Enzymology. 1388: 305-314

Ewart, K.V., Li, Z.J., Yang, D.S.C., Fletcher, G.L., and Hew, C.L. (1998). The ice-binding site of atlantic herring antifreeze protein corresponds to the carbohydrate-binding site of C-type lectins. BIOCHEMISTRY. 37: 4080-4085.

Fletcher, G.L., Goddard, S.V., Davies, P.L., Gong, Z., Ewart, K.V., and Hew, C.L. (1998). New insights into fish antifreeze proteins: physiological significance and molecular regulation. In Cold Ocean Physiology (Society for Experimental Biology seminar series: 66). Edited by H.O. Portner and R. Playle. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. pp. 239-265.

Gauthier, S.Y., Kay, C.M., Sykes, B.D., Walker, V.K., and Davies, P.L. (1998) Disulfide bond mapping and structural characterization of spruce budworm antifreeze protein. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF BIOCHEMISTRY. 258: 445-453

Gronwald, W., Loewen, M.C., Lix, B., Daugulis, A.J., Sonnichsen, F.D., Davies, P.L., and Sykes, B.D. (1998). The solution structure of Type-II antifreeze protein reveals a new member of the lectin family. BIOCHEMISTRY. 37: 4712-4721

Haymet, A.D.J., Ward, L.G., Harding, M.M., and Knight, C.A. (1998). Valine substituted winter flounder antifreeze - preservation of ice growth hysteresis. FEBS LETTERS. 430: 301-306.

Lane, A.N., Hays, L.M., Feeney, R.E., Crowe, L.M., and Crowe, J.H (1998). Conformational and dynamic properties of a14-residue antifreeze glycopeptide from Antarctic cod. PROTEIN SCIENCE. 7: 1555-1563

Li, N., Kendrick, B.S., Manning, M.C., Carpenter, J.F., and Duman, J.G. (1998) Secondary structure of antifreeze proteins from overwintering larvae of the beetle Dendroides canadensis ARCHIVES OF BIOCHEMISTRY AND BIOPHYSICS. 360: 25-32

Loewen, M.C., Gronwald, W., Sonnichsen, F.D., Sykes, B.D., and Davies, P.L. (1998) The ice-binding site of sea raven antifreeze protein is distinct from the carbohydrate-binding site of the homologous C-type lectin. BIOCHEMISTRY. 37: 17745-17753

Low, W.K., Miao, M., Ewart, K.V., Yang, D.S.C., Fletcher, G.L., and Hew, C.L. (1998) Skin-type antifreeze protein from the shorthorn sculpin, Myoxocephalus scorpius - expression and characterization of a M-R-9,700 recombinant protein . JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY. 273: 23098-23103

Sonnichsen, F.D., Davies, P.L., and Sykes, B.D. (1998) NMR structural studies on antifreeze proteins. BIOCHEMISTRY AND CELL BIOLOGY-BIOCHIMIE ET BIOLOGIE CELLULAIRE. 1998 v.76 is.2-3 pp.284-293

Worrall, D., L. Elias, D. Ashford, M. Smallwood, C. Sidebottom, P. Lillford, J. Telford, C. Holt, and D. Bowles. (1998). A carrot leucine-rich-repeat protein that inhibits ice recrystallization. Science. 282: 115-117.

Wu, S.M., Hwang, P.P., Hew, C.L., and Wu, J.L. (1998). Effect of antifreeze protein on cold tolerance in juvenile tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus, Peters) and milkfish (Chanos chanos, Forsskal). ZOOLOGICAL STUDIES 37: 39-44.

Yang, D.S.C., Hon, W.C., Bubanko, S., Xue, Y.Q., Seetharaman, J., Hew, C.L., and Sicheri, F. (1998). Identification of the ice-binding surface on a Type-III antifreeze protein with a flatness function algorithm. BIOPHYSICAL JOURNAL. 74: 2142-2151.

Yuasa, H.J., Furuta, E., Nakamura, A., and Takagi, T. (1998). Cloning and sequencing of 3 C-Type Lectins from the body surface mucus of the land slug, Incilaria fruhstorferi. COMPARATIVE BIOCHEMISTRY AND PHYSIOLOGY B-BIOCHEMISTRY & MOLECULAR BIOLOGY. 119: 479-484.

Zhao, Z.H., Deng, G.J., Lui, Q.M., and Laursen, R.A. (1998) Cloning and sequencing of cDNA-encoding the LS-12 antifreeze protein in the longhorn sculpin, Myoxocephalus octodecimspinosis. BIOCHIMICA ET BIOPHYSICA ACTA-PROTEIN STRUCTURE AND MOLECULAR ENZYMOLOGY. 1382: 177-180.


Antikainen, M. and M.Griffith. (1997). Antifreeze protein accumulation in freezing-tolerant cereals. Physiologica Plantarum. 99, is.3: pp 423-432

Chan, L.B., A.L.DeVries, and C.H.C.Cheng. (1997). Evolution of antifreeze glycoprotein gene from a trypsinogen gene in Antarctic Notothenioid fish. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 94 (8): 3811-3816.

Chan, S. L., M.Miao, G.L.Fletcher, & C.L.Hew. (1997). The role of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein and a protein that binds to the activator-protein-1 site in the regulation of liver-specific expression of the winter flounder antifreeze protein gene. Eur. J. Biochem. 247: 44-51.

Chao, H., M.E.Houston, R.S.Hodges, C.M.Kay, B.D.Sykes, M.C.Loewen, P.L.Davies, and F.D.Sonnichsen. (1997). A diminished role for hydrogen-bonds in antifreeze protein -binding to ice. Biochemistry 36, is.48: pp.14652-14660

Chapsky, L. and B.Rubinsky. (1997). Kinetics of antifreeze protein-induced ice growth-inhibition. FEBS letters. 412: is.1: pp.241-244

Chen L.B., DeVries, A.L., and Cheng, C.H.C. (1997). Convergent evolution of antifreeze glycoproteins in Antarctic notothenioid fish and Arctic cod. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 94: 3817-3822.

Chen, L.B., DeVries, A.L., and Cheng, C.H.C. (1997). Evolution of antifreeze glycoprotein gene from a trypsinogen gene in Antarctic notothenioid fish. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 94: 3811-3816.

Cheng, A.L. and K.M.Merz. (1997). Ice-binding mechanism of winter flounder antifreeze proteins. Biophysical Journal. 73, is.6: pp.2851-2873

Davies, P.L. and B.D.Sykes. (1997). Antifreeze proteins. Current Opinion in Structural Biology. 7, is.6: pp.828-834

Deng, G.J., Andrews, D.W., & Laursen, R.A. (1997). Amino acid sequence of a new type of antifreeze protein from the longhorn sculpin, Myoxocephalus octodecimspinosis. FEBS letters. 402: 17-20.

Fletcher, G.L., S.V.Goddard, K.D.Hobbs, and C.L.Hew. (1997) Can antifreeze proteins improve the cold tolerance of fish? Cryo-Letters. 18 (1): pp 8-8.

Graham, L.A., Y.C. Liou, V.K. Walker, and P.L. Davies. (1997). Hyperactive antifreeze protein from beetles. Nature 388 (6644): 727-728.

Griffith, M., M.Antikainen, W.C.Hon, K.Pihakaskimaunsbach, X.M.Yu, J.U.Chun, and D.S.C.Yang. (1997). Antifreeze proteins in winter rye. Physiologia Plantarum. 100, is. 2: 327-332.

Hew, C.L., K.V.Ewart, Z.Hu, Z.Gong, and G.L.Fletcher. (1997). Skin antifreeze protein genes of the winter flounder (Pleuronectes americanus) encode distinct and active polypeptides without the secretory signal and prosequences. Cryo-Letters. 18 (1): pp 9-9.

Jia, Z.C., C.I.DeLuca, H.M.Chao, and P.L.Davies. (1997). Structural basis for the binding of a globular antifreeze protein on ice. Nature. 385 (6616): 555-555

Murry, H.M., Hew, C.L., and Fletcher, G.L. (1997). Localization of winter flounder Type-I antifreeze expression in gill and scale whole mounts using nonisotopic in-situ hybridization. CRYO-LETTERS JAN-FEB 97. 18: 12-12

Thomashow, M.F., E.J. Stockinger, K.R. Jaglo-Ottosen, S.J. Gilmour, and D.G. Zarka. (1997). Function and regulation of Arabidopsis thaliana COR (cold-regulated) genes. Acta Physiol. Plant. 19: 497-504.

West, H.P., H.Ramlov, P.W.Wilson, P.W., and A.L.DeVries. (1997). Vapor-pressure of aqueous antifreeze glycopeptide solutions. Cryo-letters. 18 is.5: pp.277-282

Wierzbicki, A., J.D.Madura, C.Salmon, and F.Sonnichsen. (1997). Modelling studies of binding of sea raven Type-II antifreeze protein to ice. Journal of Chemical Information and Computer Sciences. 37, is.6: pp.1006-1010


Berger, W.K., and B.Uhrik. (1996). Freeze-induced shrinkage of individual cells, and cell-to-cell propagation of intracellular ice in cell chains from salivary glands. Experientia. 52 (9): 843-850.

Chao, H., Hodges, R.S., Kay, C.M., Gauthier, S.Y., and Davies, P.L. (1996) A natural variant of Type I antifreeze protein with 4 ice-binding repeats is a particularly potent antifreeze. Protein Science: 5, 1150-1156.

DeLuca, C.I., H.Chao, F.D.Sonnichsen, B.D.Sykes, and P.L.Davies. (1996). Effect of Type III antifreeze protein dilution and mutation on the growth inhibition of ice. Biophys. J. 71 (5): 2346-2355.

Ewart, K. V., Yang, D. S. C., Ananthanarayanan, V. S., Fletcher, G. L., & Hew C. L. (1996). Ca2+ - dependent antifreeze proteins. Journal of Biological Chemistry: 271, 16,627-16,632.

Gong, Z., Ewart, K. V., Hu, Z., Fletcher, G. L., & Hew, C. L. (1996). Skin antifreeze protein genes of the winter flounder, Pleuronectes americanus, encode distinct and active polypeptides without the secretory signal and prosequences. Journal of Biological Chemistry: 271, 4106-4112.

Gronwald, W., Chao, H.M., Reddy, D.V., Davies, P.L., Sykes, B.D, and Sonnichsen F.D. (1996). NMR characterization of side-chain flexibility and backbone structure in the Type-I antifreeze protein at near freezing temperatures. BIOCHEMISTRY. 35: 16698-16704.

Horwath, K.L., C.M.Easton, G.J.Poggioli, K.Myers, and I.L.Schnorr. (1996). Tracking the profile of a specific antifreeze protein and its contribution to the thermal hysteresis activity in cold hardy insects. Eur. J. Entomol. 93 (3): 419-433.

Sonnichsen, F.D., DeLuca, C.I., Davies, P.L., and Sykes, B.D. (1996). Refined solution structure of Type III antifreeze protein - Hydrophobic groups may be involved in the energetics of the protein-ice interaction. Structure: 4, 1325-1337.

Verdier, J.M., Ewart, K.V., Griffith, M., and Hew, C.L. (1996). An immune response to ice crystals in North Atlantic fishes. European Journal of Biochemistry: 241, 740-743.

Webb, M.S., S.J. Gilmour, M.F. Thomashow, and P.L. Steponkus. (1996). Effects of COR6.6 and COR15am polypeptides encoded by COR (cold-regulated) genes of Arabidopsis thaliana on dehydration-induced phase transitions of phospholipid membranes. Plant Physiol. 111: 301-312.

Wierzbicki, A., Taylor, M.S., Knight, C.A., Madura, J.D., Harrington, J.P., and Sikes, C.S. (1996). Analysis of shorthorn sculpin antifreeze protein stereospecific binding to (2-10) faces of ice. Biophysical Journal: 71, 8-18.

Wöhrmann, A.P.A. (1996). Antifreeze glycopeptides and peptides in Antarctic fish species from the Weddell Sea and the Lazarev Sea. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 130 (1-3): 47-59.


Chao, H., C.I.DeLuca, and P.L.Davies. (1995). Mixing antifreeze protein types changes ice crystal morphology without affecting antifreeze activity. FEBS Letters. 357 (2): 183-186.

Gong, Z., King, M. J., Fletcher, G. L., & Hew, C. L. (1995). The antifreeze protein genes of the winter flounder, Pleuronectes americanus, are differentially regulated in liver and non-liver tissues. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications: 206, 387-392.

Sicheri, F. & Yang, D. S. C. (1995). Ice-binding structure and mechanism of an antifreeze protein from winter flounder. Nature: 375, 427-431.

Sun, X.Y., M.Griffith, J.J.Pasternak, and B.R.Glick. (1995). Low temperature growth, freezing survival, and production of antifreeze protein by the plant growth promoting rhizobacterium Pseudomonas putida GR12-2. Can. J. Microbiol. 41 (9): 776-784

Previous to 1995


Chao, H., F.D.Sonnichsen, C.I.DeLuca, B.D.Sykes, and P.L.Davies. (1994). Structure-function relationship in the globular Type III antifreeze proteins - identification of a cluster of surface residues required for binding to ice. Protein Science. 3 (10): 1760-1769.

Goddard, S.V., and G.L.Fletcher. (1994). Antifreeze proteins: their role in cod survival and distribution from egg to adult. ICES mar. Sci. Symp., 198: 676-683.

Goddard, S. V., Wroblewski, J. S., Taggart, C. T., Howse, K. A., Bailey, W. L., Kao, M. H. & Fletcher, G. L. (1994). Overwintering of adult Northern Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in cold inshore waters as evidenced by plasma antifreeze glycoprotein levels. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences: 51, 2834-2842.

Xue, Y.Q., F.Sicheri, P.Ala, C.L.Hew, and D.S.C.Yang. (1994). Single crystals of a Type III antifreeze polypeptide from ocean pout (Macrozoarces americanus). J. Mol. Biol. 237 (3): 351- 353.


Chan, S. L., Fletcher, G. L., & Hew, C. L. (1993). Control of antifreeze protein gene expression in winter flounder. In: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Fishes, Vol 2. Hochachka & Mommsen (eds.) Elsevier Science Publishers, 293-305.

Davies, P. L., Ewart, K. V., & Fletcher, G. L. (1993). The diversity and distribution of fish antifreeze proteins: new insights into their origins. In: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Fishes, Vol 2. Hochachka & Mommsen (eds.) Elsevier Science Publishers, 279-291.

Sonnichsen,F.D.,Skyes, B.D., Chao,H, & Davis, P.L. (1993). The nonhelical structure of antifreeze protein type lll. Science: 259, 1154-1157.


Ewart, K. V., Rubinsky, B., & Fletcher, G. L. (1992). Structural and functional similarity between fish antifreeze proteins and calcium-dependent lectins. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications: 185, 335-340.

Gong, Z., Fletcher, G. L., & Hew, C. L. (1992). Tissue distribution of fish antifreeze protein mRNAs. Canadian Journal of Zoology: 70, 810-814.

Hew, C. L., & Yang, D. S. C. (1992). Protein interaction with ice. Journal of Biochemistry: 203, 33-42.

Hincha, D.K., and J.M.Schmitt. (1992). Cryoprotective leaf proteins: assay methods and heat stability. J. Plant Physiol. 140: 236-240.

Valerio, P. F., Kao, M. H., & Fletcher, G. L. (1992). Fish skin: an effective barrier to ice crystal propagation. Journal of Experimental Biology: 164, 135-151.


Rubinsky, B., Arav, A., & Fletcher, G. L. (1991). Hypothermic protection - a fundamental property of "antifreeze" proteins. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications: 180, 566-571.


Davies, P. L., & Hew, C. L. (1990). Biochemistry of fish antifreeze proteins. FASEB Journal: 4(8), 2460-2468.

Ewart, K. V., & Fletcher, G. L. (1990). Isolation and characterization of antifreeze proteins from smelt (Osmerus mordax) and Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus harengus). Canadian Journal of Zoology: 68, 1652-1658.

Hsiao, K.C., C.H.C.Cheng, I.E.Fernandes, H.W.Detrich, and A.L.DeVries. (1990). An antifreeze glycopeptide gene from the Antarctic cod, Notothenia coriiceps neglecta, encodes a polyprotein of high peptide copy number. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 87: 9265-9269.

Valerio, P. F., Kao, M. H., & Fletcher, G. L. (1990). Thermal hysteresis activity in the skin of cunner, Tautogolabrus adspersus. Canadian Journal of Zoology: 68, 1065-1067.


Fletcher, G. L., Idler, D. R., Vaisius, A., & Hew, C. L. (1989). Hormonal regulation of antifreeze protein gene expression in winter flounder. Fish Physiology and Biochemistry: 7, 387-393.

Fletcher, G.L., M.J.King, M.H.Kao, and M.A.Shears. (1989). Antifreeze proteins in the urine of marine fish. Fish Physiology and Biochemistry. 6 (2): 121-127

Vaisius, A., Martin-Kearley, J., & Fletcher, G. L. (1989). Antifreeze protein gene transcription in winter flounder is not responsive to temperature. Cellular and Molecular Biology: 35, 547-554.


DeVries, A. L. (1988). The role of antifreeze glycopeptides and peptides in the freezing avoidance of Antarctic fishes. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology: 90B, 611-621.

Hew, C. L., Wang, N. C., Joshi, S., Fletcher, G. L., Scott, G. K., Hayes, P. L., Buettner, B., & Davies, P. L. (1988). Multiple genes provide the basis for antifreeze protein diversity and dosage in the ocean pout Macrozoarces americanus. Journal of Biological Chemistry: 263, 12049-12055.

Scott, G. K., Davies, P. L., Kao, M. H., &. Fletcher, G. L. (1988). Differential amplification of antifreeze protein genes in the Pleuronectinae. Journal of Molecular Evolution: 27, 29-35.

Yang, D. S. C., Sax, M., Chakrabartty, A., & Hew, C. L. (1988). Crystal structure of an antifreeze polypeptide and its mechanistic implications. Nature (London): 333, 232-237.


Fletcher, G. L., King, M. J., & Kao, M. H. (1987). Low temperature regulation of antifreeze glycopeptide levels in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Canadian Journal of Zoology: 65, 227-233.


Fletcher, G. L., Kao, M. H., & Fourney, R. M. (1986). Antifreeze peptides confer freezing resistance to fish. Canadian Journal of Zoology: 64, 1897-1901.

Hew, C. L., Wang, N. C., Yan, S., Cai, H., Sclater, A., & Fletcher, G. L. (1986). Biosynthesis of antifreeze polypeptides in the winter flounder - characterization and seasonal occurrence of precursor polypeptides. European Journal of Biochemistry: 160, 267-272.

Kao, M.H., G.L.Fletcher, N.C.Wang, and C.L.Hew. (1986). The relationship between molecular weight and antifreeze polypeptide activity in marine fish. Can. J. Zool. 64 (3): 578-582.

Ng, N. F., Trinh, K. Y., & Hew, C. L. (1986). Structure of an antifreeze polypeptide from the sea raven (Hemitripterus americanus). Journal of Biological Chemistry: 261, 15690-15695.

Price, J. L., Gourlie, B. B., Lin, Y., & Huang, R. C. C. (1986). Induction of winter flounder antifreeze protein messenger RNA at 4 C in vivo and in vitro. Physiological Zoology: 59, 679 - 695.


Fletcher, G. L., Hew, C. L., Li, X. M., Haya, K., & Kao, M. H. (1985). Year-round presence of high levels of plasma antifreeze peptides in a temperate fish, ocean pout (Macrozoarces americanus). Canadian Journal of Zoology: 63, 488-493.

Hew, C. L., & Fletcher, G. L. (1985). Biochemical adaptation to the freezing environment - structure, biosynthesis, and regulation of fish antifreeze polypeptides. In: Circulation, respiration and metabolism. illis, R. (ed.) Springer-Verlag, Berlin and Heidelberg. pp. 553-563.

Scott, G. K., Hew, C. L., & Davies, P. L. (1985). Antifreeze protein genes are tandemly linked and clustered in the genome of the winter flounder. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America: 82, 2613-2617.


Fourney, R.M., G.L.Fletcher, and C.L.Hew. (1984). Accumulation of winter flounder antifreeze messenger RNA after hypophysectomy. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 54: 392-401.

Hew, C. L., Slaughter, D., Joshi, S. B., Fletcher, G. L., & Ananthanarayanan, V. S. (1984). Antifreeze polypeptides from the Newfoundland ocean pout, Macrozoarces americanus: presence of multiple and compositionally diverse components. Journal of Comparative Physiology B: 155, 81-88.


Fletcher G. L., Hew, C. L., & Joshi, S. B. (1982). Isolation and characterization of antifreeze glycopeptides from the frostfish, Microgadus tomcod. Canadian Journal of Zoology: 60, 348-355.

Schneppenheim, R., & Theede, H. (1982). Freezing-point depressing peptides and glycoproteins from Arctic-boreal and Antarctic fishes. Polar Biology : 1, 115-123.


Fletcher, G. L. (1981). Effects of temperature and photoperiod on the plasma freezing point depression, Cl- concentration, and protein "antifreeze" in winter flounder. Canadian Journal of Zoology: 59, 193-201.


Fletcher, G. L. (1977). Circannual cycles of blood plasma freezing point and Na+ and Cl- concentrations in Newfoundland winter flounder(Pseudopleuronectes americanus):correlation with water temperature and photoperiod. Canadian Journal of Zoology: 55, 789-795.


DeVries, A. L., Komatsu, S. K., & Feeney, R. E. (1970). Chemical and physical properties of freezing point-depression glycoproteins from Antarctic fishes. Journal of Biological Chemistry: 245, 2901-2913.


DeVries, A. L., & Wohlschlag, D. E. (1969). Freezing resistance in some Antarctic fishes. Science: 163, 1074-1075.


Gordon, M. S., Andur, B. N., & Scholander, P. F. (1962). Freezing resistance in some northern fishes. Biological Bulletin: 122, 52-62.


Scholander, P. F., VanDam, L., Kanwisher, J. W., Hammell, H. T., & Gordon, M. S. (1957). Supercooling and osmoregulation in Arctic fish. J. Cell. Comp. Physiol: 49, 5-24.